A Comprehensive Study of Manganese Deposition and Side Reactions in Li-Ion Battery Electrodes


A thorough investigation of both manganese (Mn) deposition onto graphite and its side reactions was conducted based on complementary techniques including CV, EIS, GCPL, ICP-OES, SEM and EDS. Each measurement revealed a specific aspect of the degradation phenomena, which taken together all pointed in a common direction. This study focused on 1) deposition mechanisms and effects of manganese ions on the SEI layer; 2) the effects of manganese deposition on electrochemical performance; and 3) direct observation of decomposed layers induced by manganese deposition. It was confirmed that adding Mn(PF6)2 salt in the electrolyte results in severe capacity decrease and impedance rise. It is found that manganese ions in the electrolyte participate to generate Mn-containing SEI layers when depositing onto the graphite surface accompanied by additional side reactions. Interestingly, before manganese ions deposit onto the graphite electrode, they enhance cell capacity due to additional oxidation reactions. It is found that the reaction of manganese ions changes with the voltage conditions during charge or discharge and the lithiation status of the graphite electrode.


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Research Center/Lab(s)

Intelligent Systems Center

Second Research Center/Lab

Center for High Performance Computing Research


This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under grant No. CNS-1446117

Keywords and Phrases

Deposition; Electric batteries; Electric discharges; Electrodes; Electrolytes; Graphite; Graphite electrodes; Ions; Lithium-ion batteries; Manganese compounds; Secondary batteries, Complementary techniques; Decomposed layers; Deposition mechanism; Direct observations; Electrochemical performance; Li-ion battery electrodes; Oxidation reactions; Voltage conditions, Manganese

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

0013-4651; 1945-7111

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


File Type





© 2017 Electrochemical Society Inc., All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Sep 2017