This work deals with the planning and fabrication of a functionally gradient copper-nickel composition via Laser Metal Deposition (LMD). Various compositions of copper and nickel were made by blending different weight percentages which were then sequentially deposited to fabricate functionally gradient copper-nickel thin-wall structures. Analyses were performed by sectioning the thin-wall samples for metallographic, hardness, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) studies. The fabrication was studied for identifying and corroborating the deposited compositions and their corresponding gradients. XRD analyses were performed to identify the crystal structure of the deposit. EDS analysis was instrumental in identifying the variation in composition and realizing the gradient in between compositions. Consequences of using different laser beam intensity profiles and varying laser power duty cycles were realized by analyzing the copper-nickel concentration trends obtained from EDS analyses. Hardness testing was successful in capturing the decreasing trends in strength with decreasing nickel concentration.

Meeting Name

26th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium -- An Additive Manufacturing Conference, SFF 2015 (2015: Aug. 10-12, Austin, TX)


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Second Department

Materials Science and Engineering

Research Center/Lab(s)

Intelligent Systems Center


The authors would like to express their sincere gratitude to the support from National Aeronautics and Space Administration EPSCoR program (Grant# NNX13AM99A), and Intelligent Systems Center at Missouri University of Science and Technology.

Document Type

Article - Conference proceedings

Document Version

Final Version

File Type




Publication Date

12 Aug 2015