Mixed Convection on Inclined Surfaces


An analysis is performed to study the effects of buoyancy force on the heat transfer characteristics of laminar forced convection flow over an inclined flat surface which is either maintained at a uniform temperature or subjected to a uniform heat flux. Numerical results are presented for Prandtl numbers of 0.7 and 7 over a wide range of values of the buoyancy force parameters, with the angle of inclination ranging from 0 to 90 deg from the vertical. In general, it is found that for both surface heating conditions, the local friction factor and the local Nusselt number increase with increasing buoyancy force for assisting flow and decrease with increasing buoyancy force for opposing flow. In addition, the effects of the buoyancy force on these two quantities are found to diminish as the angle of inclination increases. A comparison is also made of the results between the case of uniform wall temperature and the case of uniform surface heat flux.


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Keywords and Phrases

Force; Flow (Dynamics); Buoyancy; Friction; Temperature; Heat Transfer; Forced Convection; Mixed Convection; Wall Temperature; Heating

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)


Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


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© 1979 American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Jan 1979