Physical Characterization of Aerosol Emissions from a Commercial Gas Turbine Engine


This paper discusses the results of the Aircraft Particle Emissions Experiment Project for the physical characterization of total (nonvolatile plus volatile) aerosol emissions (emission factors, hydration properties, and distribution shape parameters) by extractive sampling from an on-wing CFM56-2C1 engine. Samples were extracted at the engine exit plane (1 m) as well as locations 10 and 30 m downstream. Three different fuels were used in this study: base fuel, high-sulfur fuel, and high-aromatic fuel. For the 1 and 10-m probe locations, strong and sometimes nonlinear dependencies were observed on fuel flow rate and no statistically significant dependencies were observed for fuel composition. At 30 m, the onset of gas-to-particle conversion was apparent for low- to medium-fuel flow rates. The soluble mass fraction was found to increase with distance from the engine exit plane and with increasing fuel aromatic and sulfur content. An intercomparison of gas and particle sampling trains showed that gas-to-particle conversion is a serious sample train artifact for gas sampling trains in which dilution cannot be achieved at the probe tip.


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Second Department


Third Department


Keywords and Phrases

Aerosol Emissions; Aircraft Particle Emissions Experiment Project; Base Fuel; High-Aromatic Fuel; High-Sulfur Fuel

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)


Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


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© 2007 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Sep 2007