Surface Roughening of Electrowon Copper in the Presence of Chloride Ions


Deposition studies were conducted in acid copper electrolyte to determine the influence of chloride ions on cathode morphology. A statistically designed screening test was carried out in the absence and presence of 20 ppm Cl- using a three factor, two level factorial design, in an electrolyte containing 36 gl-1 Cu2+ and 150 gl-1 H2SO4. The independent variables evaluated were agitation, current density and temperature and their influence on surface roughness was determined. The copper deposited at current densities where activation was the primary control mechanism appeared similar in morphology whether stirring was used or not. The addition of 20 ppm Cl- to the electrolyte gave rougher deposits under the same conditions. In the mixed control regions, considerably rougher, dendritic deposits were obtained when Cl- was present. Agitation was effective in reducing the copper surface roughness both in the apparent activation and mixed control regions in the presence of Cl-. The results of this study showed that 20 ppm Cl- polarized the copper deposition at low overpotentials but caused depolarization at higher overpotentials.


Materials Science and Engineering

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Article - Conference proceedings

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Publication Date

01 Dec 1997

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