Evidence Of Spatially Selective Refractive Index Modification In 15GeSe2-45As2Se3-40PbSe Glass Ceramic Through Correlation Of Structure And Optical Property Measurements For GRIN Applications


Thermally-induced nucleation and growth of secondary crystalline phases in a parent glass matrix results in the formation of a glass ceramic. Localized, spatial control of the number density and size of the crystal phases formed can yield 'effective' properties defined approximately by the local volume fraction of each phase present. With spatial control of crystal phase formation, the resulting optical nanocomposite exhibits gradients in physical properties including gradient refractive index (GRIN) profiles. Micro-structural changes quantified via Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction have been correlated to calculated and measured refractive index modification verifying formation of an effective refractive index, neff, with the formation of nanocrystal phases created through thermal heat treatment in a multi-component chalcogenide glass. These findings have been used to define experimental laser irradiation conditions required to induce the conversion from glass to glass ceramic, verified using simulations to model the thermal profiles needed to substantiate the gradient in nanocrystal formation. Pre-nucleated glass underwent spatially varying nanocrystal growth using bandgap laser heating, where the laser beam's thermal profile yielded a gradient in both resulting crystal phase formation and refractive index. The changes in the nanocomposite's micro-Raman signature have been quantified and correlated to crystal phases formed, the material's index change and the resulting GRIN profile. A flat, threedimensional (3D) GRIN nanocomposite focusing element created through use of this approach, is demonstrated.


Materials Science and Engineering

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)


Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version

Final Version

File Type





© 2023 Optica, All rights reserved.

Creative Commons Licensing

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Publication Date

01 Jan 2017