This study developed a model for predicting viscosity of alkali-alumino-borosilicate glass melts as functions of composition and temperature. The model is based on a total of 3935 viscosity-temperature data from 574 glasses with viscosity values ranging from 2.53 to 7260 Poise (P) in the temperature range of 900–1260°C. Several different model forms were surveyed, including those based on Arrhenius, Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann, Avramov-Milchev, and Mauro-Yue-Ellison-Gupta-Allen. For each of these models, combinations of the temperature-independent parameters were fitted to composition. It was found that generally fitting more than one temperature-independent parameter as functions of composition resulted in overfitting. The Avramov-Milchev-based model was found to best represent the Hanford low-activity waste glass melt viscosity data based on model fit and validation statistics. A 21-term partial quadratic mixture model was recommended for use. This model predicts melt viscosity with a root-mean square error of.1736 ln(P), which is similar to the error in viscosity measurements from replicate glass analyses of.1383 ln(P). Viscosity was found to be most increased by SiO2 > Al2O3 > ZrO2 > SnO2 and most decreased by Li2O > Na2O > B2O3 > CaO > K2O > MgO, at temperatures from 900 to 1260°C.


Materials Science and Engineering

Publication Status

Open Access


U.S. Department of Energy, Grant DEAC05‐76RL01830

Keywords and Phrases

borosilicate; composition effects; glass forming melts; glass forming systems; viscosity

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

2041-1294; 2041-1286

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


File Type





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Publication Date

01 Oct 2022