A study has been made to determine the effect of antimony, chloride ion, and glue on copper electrorefining. All deposits were made at a temperature of 65° C on a titanium cathode. Current densities of 398 A m-2 and 133 A m-2 were used. The deposits were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine morphology and crystal orientation. Atomic absorption (AA) and Auger spectroscopy (AES) were used to study the chemical composition of the deposits and a simple bend test was used to determine structural integrity. It was found that when the antimony concentration in the electrolyte exceeded 300 ppm, brittle deposits were produced containing considerable amounts of antimony. Very small amounts of chloride ion (1.5 ppm or above) decreased the codeposition of antimony greatly and produced ductile deposits. However, at a chloride ion level of 15 ppm or above, the back side of the deposit had a very rough, powdery appearance. The effect of glue was to counteract this and to produce a mirror-like finish on the deposit back. © 1978 Chapman and Hall Ltd.


Materials Science and Engineering

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

1572-8838; 0021-891X

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


File Type





© 2023 Springer, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Mar 1978

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Metallurgy Commons