The transition towards renewable energy requires increasing quantities of nonfuel mineral commodities, including tellurium used in certain photovoltaics. While demand for tellurium may increase markedly, the potential to increase tellurium supply is not well-understood. In this analysis, we estimate the quantity of tellurium contained in anode slimes generated by electrolytic copper refining by country between 1986 and 2018, including uncertainties. For 2018, the results indicate that 1930 (1500-2700, 95% confidence interval) metric tons of tellurium were contained in anode slimes globally. This is nearly quadruple the reported tellurium production for that year. China has the greatest potential to increase tellurium supplies. However, most of the tellurium potentially recoverable by Chinese refineries appears to come from copper mined elsewhere. Further research into the business decisions associated with tellurium recovery may help translate the physical availability of tellurium into economic availability. The methodology presented here can be applied to other byproduct elements.
N. T. Nassar et al., "Global Tellurium Supply Potential from Electrolytic Copper Refining," Resources, Conservation and Recycling, vol. 184, article no. 106434, Elsevier, Sep 2022.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2022.106434
Materials Science and Engineering
Keywords and Phrases
byproducts; copper; Critical minerals; minor metals; solar photovoltaic
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Article - Journal
© 2023 Elsevier, All rights reserved.
01 Sep 2022
U.S. Geological Survey, Grant None