Modern EAF steelmaking employs scrap as its primary source of raw material. Different sources of scrap have varying levels of residuals, which can negatively influence product properties, performance, and surface quality. The presence of some residuals, such as Cu and Ni in controlled quantities, can also positively impact steel performance for some applications. It is also well known that interactions between residuals and alloying elements in steel can modify the structure of scale formed during slab reheating prior to hot rolling. These changes in the scale structure can influence scale removability. In this study, the effect of varying Cu concentrations in a low alloyed Mn and Si containing steel was examined to investigate its impact on scale removability. Laboratory studies were performed with simulated reheating and descaling conditions that mimic the conditions used in industrial practices. The scale structure that formed during reheating in the combustion atmosphere was investigated using SEM/EDX analysis. A special laboratory water jet descaling device was used to evaluate scale removability at three different hydraulic impact factors. The results showed that Cu at different levels significantly modified scale structure that formed, particularly the internal scale layers, which affected scale removability at different applied descaling impact factors. The effects of Cu level and descaling impact factor on scale removability is discussed.


Materials Science and Engineering

Keywords and Phrases

Cu-enrichment; Descaling; Impact factor; Reheating; Scale structure

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

1573-4889; 0030-770X

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version

Final Version

File Type





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Publication Date

01 Oct 2022