Dense, dual-phase (Cr,Hf,Nb,Ta,Ti,Zr)B2-(Cr,Hf,Nb,Ta,Ti,Zr)C ceramics were synthesized by boro/carbothermal reduction of oxides and densified by spark plasma sintering. The high-entropy carbide content was about 14.5 wt%. Grain growth was suppressed by the pinning effect of the two-phase ceramic, which resulted in average grain sizes of 2.7 ± 1.3 µm for the high-entropy boride phase and 1.6 ± 0.7 µm for the high-entropy carbide phase. Vickers hardness values increased from 25.2 ± 1.1 GPa for an indentation load of 9.81 N to 38.9 ± 2.5 GPa for an indentation load of 0.49 N due to the indentation size effect. Boro/carbothermal reduction is a facile process for the synthesis and densification of dual-phase high entropy boride-carbide ceramics with both different combinations of transition metals and different proportions of boride and carbide phases.


Materials Science and Engineering


Office of Naval Research, Grant N00014-21-1-2515

Keywords and Phrases

High-Entropy Boride; High-Entropy Carbide; Microstructure; Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics; Vickers Hardness

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

1873-619X; 0955-2219

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version

Final Version

File Type





© 2023 Elsevier, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Jan 2023