Effect of Cooling Rate on Magnetic Properties of Fe-3.3 Wt% Si Non-Oriented Electrical Steel


In this paper, the effects of solidification cooling rate on the inclusion distribution, magnetic properties, and texture of 3.3 wt% Si non-oriented steel with different carbon and sulfur (C&S) levels are measured and analyzed. Fast and slow cooled strip samples produced using specially designed melt samplers were thermo-mechanically treated by hot rolling (HR), cold rolling (CR), and final annealing. The fully processed fast cooled sample (~ 1700 K/s) exhibited a smaller average grain size compared to the sample produced with a low solidification cooling rate (~ 9 K/s). In addition, under each C&S level, smaller inclusions (in the range 0.15-1.0 μm) were observed in the high solidification cooling rate sample. Differences in Cube {100}<001>, S{213}<364>, Brass{110}<112>, Goss{110}<001>, and Copper{112}<111> texture were also documented in the fully processed material. Under each C&S level, the sample with low solidification cooling rate had a lower core loss than the high cooling rate sample. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]


Materials Science and Engineering

Keywords and Phrases

Electrical Steel; Inclusion Distribution; Magnetic Properties; Microstructure; Solidification Cooling Rate

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

2005-4149; 1598-9623

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


File Type





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Publication Date

01 Jan 2022