Functionally graded material (FGM) is one kind of advanced material characterized by a gradual change in properties as the position varies. The spatial variation of compositional and microstructure over volume is aimed to control corresponding functional properties. In this research, when 100% γ-TiAl was directly deposited on pure Ti substrate, cracks were formed within the γ-TiAl layer. Then a six-layer crack-free functionally graded material of Ti/TiAl was designed and fabricated by laser metal deposition (LMD) method, with composition changing from pure Ti on one side to 100% γ-TiAl on the other side. The fabricated FGM was characterized for material properties by a variety of techniques. The chemical compositions, microstructure, phases, and hardness of the composite were characterized by Scanning Electronic Microscope (SEM), Optical Microscope (OM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), and hardness testing. The microstructure and chemical compositions in different layers were studied.

Meeting Name

28th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium -- An Additive Manufacturing Conference, SFF 2017 (2017: Aug. 7-9, Austin, TX)


Materials Science and Engineering

Second Department

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering


This project was supported by The Boeing Company through the Center for Aerospace Manufacturing Technologies (CAMT). Their financial support is greatly appreciated.

Keywords and Phrases

Additives; Beams and girders; Deposition; Energy dispersive spectroscopy; Functionally graded materials; Hardness; Microstructure, Chemical compositions; Energy dispersive X ray spectroscopy; Functional properties; Functionally graded material (FGM); Laser metal deposition; Optical microscopes; Scanning electronic microscopes; Spatial variations, Fabrication

Document Type

Article - Conference proceedings

Document Version

Final Version

File Type




Publication Date

09 Aug 2017