Material Model for Modeling Clay at High Strain Rates


Modeling clay is a soft malleable material made from oils and waxes. This material is fundamental for ballistic evaluation of body armors because it is used as backing material in ballistic tests. After a ballistic impact, a back-face indentation is measured to assess performance of the armor. Due to the important role of modeling clay in this particular application, its mechanical characterization and comprehension of penetration mechanics are essential for development of new personal protection systems. This paper presents a two-step computational methodology to calibrate parameters of a Cowper-Symonds material model for modeling clay at characteristic strain rates up to 1.8 x 104 s-1. In the first stage, a high-speed camera is used to record the penetration of a gas-gun launched cylindrical mass with a hemispherical cap into a block of clay. Image-processing software is used to capture the tail of the projectile as it penetrates into the clay. These data are then used to sample the penetration depth as function of time. In the second stage, an in-house developed model of penetration, based on both the spherical cavity expansion theory and the Tate penetration equation, is used to determine, by inverse analysis, the parameters of the Cowper-Symonds clay model. The proposed constitutive relationship for clay and the determined material parameters can be applied accurately to problems involving high strain rates.


Materials Science and Engineering

Keywords and Phrases

Back-face signature; Body armor; Dynamic indentation; Modeling clay; Plasticine

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Document Type

Article - Journal

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© 2016 Elsevier Ltd, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Apr 2016