A Unified in Vitro Evaluation for Apatite-Forming Ability of Bioactive Glasses and Their Variants


The aim of this study was to propose and validate a new unified method for testing dissolution rates of bioactive glasses and their variants, and the formation of calcium phosphate layer formation on their surface, which is an indicator of bioactivity. At present, comparison in the literature is difficult as many groups use different testing protocols. An ISO standard covers the use of simulated body fluid on standard shape materials but it does not take into account that bioactive glasses can have very different specific surface areas, as for glass powders. Validation of the proposed modified test was through round robin testing and comparison to the ISO standard where appropriate. The proposed test uses fixed mass per solution volume ratio and agitated solution. The round robin study showed differences in hydroxyapatite nucleation on glasses of different composition and between glasses of the same composition but different particle size. The results were reproducible between research facilities. Researchers should use this method when testing new glasses, or their variants, to enable comparison between the literature in the future.


Materials Science and Engineering

Keywords and Phrases

Glass; Particle Size; Phosphate Minerals; Routers, Apatite Forming; Different Particle Sizes; Dissolution Rates; In-Vitro Evaluation; Research Facilities; Round Robin Studies; Simulated Body Fluids; Testing Protocols, Bioactive Glass, Apatite; Calcium Phosphate; Glass; Hydroxyapatite; Apatite; Bioactive Glass 45S5; Biomimetic Material; Glass, Article; Biological Activity; Body Fluid; Chemical Composition; Controlled Study; Density; Dissolution; Evaluation Study; In Vitro Study; Particle Size; Priority Journal; Simulation; Surface Property; Analysis; Ceramics; Chemistry; International Cooperation; Materials Testing; Procedures; Reproducibility; Sensitivity And Specificity; Standard; Standards; Validation Study, Apatites; Biomimetic Materials; Body Fluids; Ceramics; Glass; Internationality; Materials Testing; Particle Size; Reference Standards; Reproducibility Of Results; Sensitivity And Specificity

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

0957-4530; 1573-4838

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


File Type





© 2015 Kluwer Academic Publishers, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Feb 2015