Preparation and Microstructure Evolution of Both Freestanding and Supported TiO₂ Thin Films


Thin films of TiO2 were fabricated by spin-coating silicon wafers and cover glass with a titanium citrate complex precursor. The grain growth and phase development of both freestanding and supported films were studied using a combination of atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Freestanding films prepared at 400°C possess only the anatase phase, while supported films treated under the same conditions formed a small amount of the rutile phase. After heat treatment at various temperatures, results indicated that porosity was introduced into the films when the grain size grew close to the film thickness. Grain growth studies show that the grain size of the freestanding film underwent a drastic increase during the transformation from anatase to rutile. The grain size of the supported films did not show an abrupt change upon heat treatment. The grain size of the freestanding films treated at 900°C was approximately three times larger than that of the supported films.


Materials Science and Engineering

Keywords and Phrases

Atomic force microscopy; Glass; Grain growth; Grain size and shape; Heat treatment; Phase transitions; Porosity; Silicon wafers; Spin coating; Thin films; Transmission electron microscopy; X ray diffraction analysis

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Document Type

Article - Journal

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© 2002 Cambridge University Press, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Jun 2002