Comparison of CFD Simulations with Experimental Measurements of Nozzle Clogging in Continuous Casting of Steels


Measurements of clog deposit thickness on the interior surfaces of a commercial continuous casting nozzle are compared with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions of melt flow patterns and particle-wall interactions to identify the mechanisms of nozzle clogging. A submerged entry nozzle received from industry was encased in epoxy and carefully sectioned to allow measurement of the deposit thickness on the internal surfaces of the nozzle. CFD simulations of melt flow patterns and particle behavior inside the nozzle were performed by combining the Eulerian-Lagrangian approach and detached eddy simulation turbulent model, matching the geometry and operating conditions of the industrial test. The CFD results indicated that convergent areas of the interior cross section of the nozzle increased the velocity and turbulence of the flowing steel inside the nozzle and decreased the clog deposit thickness locally in these areas. CFD simulations also predicted a higher rate of attachment of particles in the divergent area between two convergent sections of the nozzle, which matched the observations made in the industrial nozzle measurements.


Materials Science and Engineering

Research Center/Lab(s)

Center for High Performance Computing Research

Second Research Center/Lab

Peaslee Steel Manufacturing Research Center

Keywords and Phrases

Continuous Casting; Deposits; Flow Patterns; Lagrange Multipliers; Nozzles; Steel Castings; Two Phase Flow; Continuous Casting of Steels; Detached-Eddy Simulation Turbulent; Eulerian-Lagrangian Approach; Interior Surfaces; Internal Surfaces; Operating Condition; Particle Behavior; Submerged Entry Nozzles; Computational Fluid Dynamics

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)


Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


File Type





© 2016 Springer Boston, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Dec 2016