Effect of Resistance Spot Welding Parameters on Weld Pool Properties in a DP600 Dual-Phase Steel: A Parametric Study using Thermomechanically-Coupled Finite Element Analysis


The objective of this research is to quantify the effects of resistance spot welding (RSW) parameters on different weld properties of a dual-phase steel. A finite element based model was used which accounted for the following required physical interactions: the interaction between (1) the electro-kinetics and heat transfer via the Joule effect, (2) the heat transfer and phase transformations through latent heat, and (3) the heat transfer, electro-kinetics, and mechanical behavior via the contact conditions. The effects of the RSW parameters on weld properties were investigated within a design of experiments framework by altering (1) the electrical current intensity, (2) the welding time, (3) the sheet thickness, (3) the electrode face radius, and (5) the squeeze force at multiple levels. The simulation results were analyzed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique to show the effects of these parameters and their potential interactions, along with their significance. The current intensity was the most influential factor and resulted in an increased size of molten zone and the heat affected zone. The sheet thickness and welding time also showed significant contributions in changing the weld properties. The effects of the other parameters were less significant. The importance of this study is that finding the optimal process window for RSW parameters can help to engineer the desired weld properties.


Materials Science and Engineering

Research Center/Lab(s)

Center for High Performance Computing Research

Keywords and Phrases

Design of experiments; Electric properties; Electroosmosis; Finite element method; Heat transfer; Resistance welding; Welding, Contact conditions; Current intensity; Dual-phase steel; Electrical current; Influential factors; Mechanical behavior; Physical interactions; Resistance spot welding, Steel research

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)


Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


File Type





© 2014 Elsevier Ltd, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Apr 2014