Melt flow patterns and turbulence inside a slide-gate throttled submerged entry nozzle (SEN) were studied using Detached–Eddy Simulation (DES) model, which is a combination of Reynolds–Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) and Large–Eddy Simulation (LES) models. The DES switching criterion between RANS and LES was investigated to closely reproduce the flow structures of low and high turbulence regions similar to RANS and LES simulations, respectively. The melt flow patterns inside the nozzle were determined by k–ε (a RANS model), LES, and DES turbulent models, and convergence studies were performed to ensure reliability of the results. Results showed that the DES model has significant advantages over the standard k–ε model in transient simulations and in regions containing flow separation from the nozzle surface. Moreover, due to applying a hybrid approach, DES uses a RANS model at wall boundaries which resolves the extremely fine mesh requirement of LES simulations, and therefore it is computationally more efficient. Investigation of particle distribution inside the nozzle and particle adhesion to the nozzle wall also reveals that the DES model simulations predict more particle–wall interactions compared to LES model.


Materials Science and Engineering

Research Center/Lab(s)

Center for High Performance Computing Research

Second Research Center/Lab

Peaslee Steel Manufacturing Research Center


The authors would like to acknowledge the funding support from the Kent D. Peaslee Steel Manufacturing Research Center (PSMRC).

Keywords and Phrases

Computational fluid dynamics; Flow patterns; Flow separation; Navier Stokes equations; Reconfigurable hardware; Steel foundry practice; Turbulence; Model simulation; Molten steel flow; Particle adhesion; Particle distributions; Submerged entry nozzles; Switching criterion; Transient simulation; Turbulent models; Nozzles

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)


Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version

Accepted Manuscript

File Type





© 2016 Springer Boston, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Oct 2016