Masters Theses

Keywords and Phrases

design optimization; exterior lighting; light pollution; lighting design; multi-criteria decision


"Artificial light at night brings many benefits to society. However, these benefits do not come without costs. One environmental issue that is often overlooked in the design of public spaces and infrastructure is light pollution. At the expense of large amounts of energy, light pollution causes numerous harmful effects on human health, ecosystems, and the night sky. Today, the problem is becoming more widespread, especially with the increasing use of bright, white LED luminaires. Thus, it is imperative for designers and engineers to create smarter lighting designs that not only allow for safety and comfort at night but also promote human health and environmental stewardship.

This research focused on creating healthier, more sustainable outdoor lighting designs. First, the harmful effects of artificial light at night were reviewed, and general design recommendations were made for mitigating these consequences. Next, a multi-criteria decision analysis framework was developed and used to optimize illuminance and spectrum for functionality, perception, light pollution reduction, energy use, and cost. Finally, virtual reality technology was utilized to aid in adopting smarter designs that require less illumination to make public spaces feel safe and comfortable at night.

The findings of this research will help lead to a more conscious use of artificial light in the future. Additional research is encouraged to further refine and develop lighting designs that promote a proper balance of human, environmental, and economic factors. With careful consideration of both the benefits and drawbacks of lighting, designers can work towards a solution to light pollution"--Abstract, p. iii


Baur, Stuart Werner, 1965-

Committee Member(s)

Gillis, William L. III
Burns, Devin Michael
Pickerill, Heath A.


Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering

Degree Name

M.S. in Civil Engineering


Missouri University of Science and Technology

Publication Date

Spring 2023


xi, 100 pages

Note about bibliography

Includes_bibliographical_references_(pages 90-99)


© 2023 Stephen Michael Simmons, All Rights Reserved

Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

File Type




Thesis Number

T 12262

Electronic OCLC #