Masters Theses

Keywords and Phrases

Additive manufacturing; Convolutional neural network; Defects in metal parts; Machine learning


“Additive manufacturing (AM) is a layer-by-layer deposition process to fabricate parts with complex geometries. The formation of defects within AM components is a major concern for critical structural and cyclic loading applications. Understanding the mechanisms of defect formation and identifying the defects play an important role in improving the product lifecycle. The convolutional neural network (CNN) has been demonstrated to be an effective deep learning tool for automated detection of defects for both conventional and AM processes. A network with optimized parameters including proper data processing and sampling can improve the performance of the architecture. In this study, for the detection of good deposition quality and defects such as lack of fusion, gas porosity, and cracks in a fusion-based AM process, a CNN architecture is presented comparing the classification report and evaluation of different architectural settings and obtaining the optimized result from them. Since data set preparation, visualization, and balancing are very important aspects in deep learning to improve the performance and accuracy of neural network architectures, exploratory data analysis was performed for data visualization and the up-sampling method was implemented to balance the data set for each class. By comparing the results for different architectures, the optimal CNN network was chosen for further investigation. To tune the hyperparameters and to achieve an optimized parameter set, a design of experiments was implemented to improve the performance of the network. The performance of the network with optimized parameters was compared with the results from the previous study. The overall accuracy ( > 97%) for both training and testing the CNN network presented in this work transcends the current state of the art (92%) for AM defect detection”--Abstract, page iv.


Liou, Frank W.

Committee Member(s)

Dharani, Lokeswarappa R.
Dagli, Cihan H., 1949-


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Degree Name

M.S. in Manufacturing Engineering


This research was supported by National Science Foundation Grants CMMI-1547042 and CMMI 1625736, EEC 1937128, the Intelligent Systems Center (ISC), and Material Research Center (MRC) at Missouri University of Science and Technology

Research Center/Lab(s)

Intelligent Systems Center


Missouri University of Science and Technology

Publication Date

Spring 2022

Journal article titles appearing in thesis/dissertation

A convolutional neural network (CNN) for defect detection of additively manufactured parts


ix, 39 pages

Note about bibliography

Includes bibliographic references.


© 2022 Musarrat Farzana Rahman, All rights reserved.

Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

File Type




Thesis Number

T 12131

Included in

Manufacturing Commons