Masters Theses

Keywords and Phrases

Deep Eutectic Solvent; Glass; Join; Low Temperature; Quaternary Ammonium Hydroxide; Sol-Gel


The purpose of this study was to investigate durable solar cell cover glass joins produced by diffusion bonding with deep eutectic solvents (DES) and to develop a novel process of joining optically transparent materials at low temperatures. A joined PV cell-glass specimen was characterized using Raman, μ-FTIR, SEM-EDS, and thin-film XRD. DESs were created with malonic acid (MAL) and choline chloride (ChCl) of varying composition factors (CF; CF=MAL/ChCl). Joining borosilicate glass coupons was attempted using DESs with CF = 0.65 and 1 at temperatures between 100-150 °C for 20 hours. Joining the glass coupons failed at all temperatures and oxygen partial pressures. Metal salts and borosilicate glass solubilities were studied in a DES with varying CF. Oxide solubilities increased as CF approached 1. AlCl3, Al(NO3)3, and silicic acid exhibited greater solubilities than their corresponding oxides, but were not sufficient for joining.

Silica was dissolved in a choline hydroxide (ChOH)-methanol solution to produce a join between borosilicate glass coupons at low temperatures. Tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) and hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) were added as network modifiers. Thermal analyses showed alcohol condensation reactions occur at 67 °C. A solid join was produced between two borosilicate glass coupons when held at 67 °C for 20 hours. Optical spectroscopy showed the join had > 80% transmission in the range of 350-1100 nm. The joins were thermally stable at 70 °C, but the decomposition of ChOH caused discoloration at > 80 °C


Fahrenholtz, William

Committee Member(s)

Brow, Richard K.
Smith, Jeffrey D.


Materials Science and Engineering

Degree Name

M.S. in Materials Science and Engineering


Air Force Research Laboratory
ATA Corporation


This research was funded by the Air Force Research Laboratory (FA9453- 14-D-0312) through a sub-contract with ATA Corporation (purchase order 160300).


Missouri University of Science and Technology

Publication Date

Summer 2018

Journal article titles appearing in thesis/dissertation

  • Research and development of durable solar cell cover glass bonding
  • Low temperature joining of borosilicate glass utilizing choline hydroxide


xiii, 83 pages

Note about bibliography

Includes bibliographical references.


© 2018 Eric Kevin Muskovin, All rights reserved.

Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

File Type




Thesis Number

T 11390

Electronic OCLC #