Masters Theses

Keywords and Phrases

Graphite; Magnesia; Mechanism; Pickup; Refractory; Steel


"Ultra-low carbon steels are utilized in processes which require maximum ductility. Increases in interstitial carbon lower the ductility of steel; therefore, it is important to examine possible sources of carbon. The refractory ladle lining is one such source. Ladle refractories often contain graphite for its desirable thermal shock and slag corrosion resistance. This graphite is a possible source of carbon increase in ultra-low carbon steels. The goal of this research is to understand and evaluate the mechanisms by which carbon transfers to ultra-low carbon steel from magnesia-graphite ladle refractory.

Laboratory dip tests were performed in a vacuum induction furnace under an argon atmosphere to investigate these mechanisms. Commercial ladle refractories with carbon contents between 4-12 wt% were used to investigate the effect of refractory carbon content. Slag-free dip tests and slag-containing dip tests with varying MgO concentrations were performed to investigate the influence of slag. Carbon transfer to the steel was controlled by steel penetrating into the refractory and dissolving carbon in dip tests where no slag was present. The rate limiting step for this mechanism is convective mass transport of carbon into the bulk steel. No detectable carbon transfer occurred in dip tests with 4 and 6 wt%C refractories without slag because no significant steel penetration occurred. Carbon transfer was controlled by the corrosion of refractory by slag in dip tests where slag was present"--Abstract, page iv.


Richards, Von
Smith, Jeffrey D.

Committee Member(s)

O'Malley, Ronald J.


Materials Science and Engineering

Degree Name

M.S. in Metallurgical Engineering


Kent D. Peaslee Steel Manufacturing Research Center

Research Center/Lab(s)

Peaslee Steel Manufacturing Research Center


Missouri University of Science and Technology

Publication Date

Summer 2016

Journal article titles appearing in thesis/dissertation

  • Mechanism for carbon transfer from magnesia-graphite ladle refractories to ultra-low carbon steel
  • Kinetics of carbon transport from magnesia-graphite ladle refractories to ultra-low carbon steel


xiii, 64 pages

Note about bibliography

Includes bibliographical references.


© 2016 Andrew Arthur Russo, All rights reserved.

Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

File Type




Subject Headings

Ladle metallurgy
Refractory materials
Carbon steel -- Testing

Thesis Number

T 10977

Electronic OCLC #