Masters Theses


"The purpose of the present study is to determine whether a mineral phase is precipitating from solution in the natural Maramec Spring system giving the spring water a milky blue color, to identify the mineral phase, and to investigate potential mechanisms for inducing precipitation. Maramec Spring is a first-order magnitude spring located 11 km southeast of St. James, Missouri. The water that expels from Maramec Spring varies between being near saturation, but undersaturated in calcium, with respect to calcite (saturation index of 0.994 mg/L). Moving downstream, away from the conduit, the spring waters increase in pH and temperature. Eh is observed to decrease, in response to increasing pH. Conductivity, calcium, magnesium, and total hardness, as well as alkalinity were measured to be constant along the entire stream reach. Conductivity tends to be higher on sampling dates following local rainfall events. A positive COâ‚‚ flux, greatest at the point of upwelling, is observed at the spring. At this time the particulate material which is responsible for giving Missouri spring waters their milky blue color cannot be positively identified. Spring water chemistry favors calcium carbonate precipitation through COâ‚‚ degassing, but vacuum filtration suggests calcite is not a major phase. The milky blue color of the spring water is hypothesized to be a combination of calcium carbonate, or suspended colloidal quartz and clay minerals (kaolinite, smectite, or chlorite) from deeper within the spring conduit"--Abstract, page iv.


Wronkiewicz, David J.

Committee Member(s)

Oboh-Ikuenobe, Francisca
Yang, Wan


Geosciences and Geological and Petroleum Engineering

Degree Name

M.S. in Geology and Geophysics


James Foundation
United States. Department of Energy


Missouri University of Science and Technology

Publication Date

Fall 2010


ix, 47 pages

Geographic Coverage

Maramec Spring (Mo.)


© 2010 Kyle Steven Rybacki, All rights reserved.

Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

File Type




Subject Headings

Calcium carbonate
Carbonate minerals -- Analysis
Springs -- Missouri

Thesis Number

T 9752

Print OCLC #


Electronic OCLC #