Masters Theses


"Steel foundries are one of the most energy intensive industries. The increasing concerns over volatile energy cost and carbon dioxide emission have pushed foundries to improve efficiency and hence decrease electrical energy consumption. Statistical analysis of industrial survey data was combined with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling to investigate the best industrial practices and opportunities to improve energy efficiency. Reducing tap temperature was identified as one of the important ways of reducing energy consumption. Steel foundries typically tap at 1650-1800ºC (3000-33000F) which is 100-250ºC (150-450ºF) higher than the pouring temperature. The steel temperature is elevated to compensate for the temperature loss associated with tapping, holding and transporting the liquid steel from the furnace to the pouring floor.

Based on experimental investigations and CFD modeling of heat losses during holding in the ladle for different foundry practices, a spreadsheet calculator has been developed to calculate the optimum tap temperature for the specific foundry practices which will eliminate unnecessary superheating. The calculated results were compared and validated with industrial measurements. Improving the lining refractory is one significant way of reducing heat losses during holding of the steel in ladle. Silica sand linings are being used in steel foundries as an inexpensive and convenient material for short holding times and small volumes. The possibilities of improvements of silica sand linings by the addition of lower density cenospheres (hollow spheres), a byproduct of coal fired power plants, was studied through property measurements and laboratory trials"--Abstract, page iv.


Peaslee, Kent D., 1956-2013

Committee Member(s)

Lekakh, S. N. (Semen Naumovich)
Smith, Jeffrey D.


Materials Science and Engineering

Degree Name

M.S. in Materials Science and Engineering


Steel Founders' Society of America
United States. Department of Energy


Missouri University of Science and Technology

Publication Date

Spring 2013

Journal article titles appearing in thesis/dissertation

  • Reducing tap temperatures to minimize energy use in melting.
  • Steel foundry melting energy progress: benchmarking and modeling to increase energy efficiency in steel foundries.
  • Novel silica refractories for small steel ladles


xii, 84 pages

Note about bibliography

Includes bibliographical references.


© 2013 Siddhartha Biswas, All rights reserved.

Document Type

Thesis - Restricted Access

File Type




Subject Headings

Steel foundries -- Energy conservation
Heat -- Transmission -- Mathematical models
Ladle metallurgy
Computational fluid dynamics

Thesis Number

T 10322

Print OCLC #


Electronic OCLC #


Link to Catalog Record

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