Masters Theses


Hung-Chi Chao


"The independent effects of sulphur, copper and their combinations on the hot-workability of pure iron free from other elements was studied, with special emphasis on the red-short phenomenon. Electrolytic pure iron with the addition of 0.023 cent sulphur, 0.33 per cent copper and 0.024 per cent sulphur plus 0.032 per cent copper along with a heat of only electrolytic pure iron was melted under vacuum, and cast under helium pressure. The specimens machined from the forged bars were tested at various temperatures by the hot twist-test and by the constant energy single blow drop forging test to evaluate the hot-workability and red-shortness.

The red-short temperature range starts from not too far above the eutectic point of the iron-sulphur system and extends up to a certain temperature at which the solubility of sulphur in gamma iron is much more than sufficient to absorb all the sulphur content. The red-short range starts and ends gradually rather than suddenly, especially at the upper end of the red short range.

The red-short range can be illustrated by the grain boundary strength curve, which dips down to lower than the grain strength at this temperature; this provides an easy way to evaluate the red-short range, by plotting the deformation or torque curve of the iron in question along with that of the normal one.

Copper itself proved not to induce any red-shortness nor make the sulphur effect worse at the amount of 0.33 per cent copper content in this investigation, but indicates beneficial effects"--Abstract, page 6.


Eppelsheimer, Daniel S., 1909-1988

Committee Member(s)

Planje, Theodore J., 1919-1980
Wolf, Robert V., 1929-1999
Lorey, G. Edwin


Materials Science and Engineering

Degree Name

M.S. in Metallurgical Engineering


Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy

Publication Date



99 pages

Note about bibliography

Includes bibliographical references (pages 93-98).


© 1961 Hung-Chi Chao, All rights reserved.

Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

File Type




Subject Headings

Metals -- Hot working
Iron -- Hot working
Steel -- Hot working
Metals -- Formability
Steel ingots

Thesis Number

T 1311

Print OCLC #


Electronic OCLC #


Included in

Metallurgy Commons