Masters Theses


"This research examines the feasibility of using a new type of hydroxyapatite developed at the University of Missouri--Rolla (UMR-HA) to remove radioactive Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) from a de-ionized water (DIW) solution. The purpose was to study the possibility of using UMR-HA to remove Tc-99 from nuclear waste streams. Tc-99 is a beta emitter and is formed in the nuclear fission of Uranium 235. It is found in the waste water from fission reactors and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Tc-99m is the metastable isomer of Tc-99, and is formed by the beta decay of Mo-99. Both isotopes are present in aqueous solution as a pertechnetate ion (TcO4)- where the Tc is present as a Tc7+ species. The pertechnetate is highly soluble in water and readily mobile in the environment. If reduced to a Tc4+ species, the Tc becomes much less soluble and will have a greater probability of bonding with HA and thus be removed from solution.

This thesis studied the use of a reducing agent, tin chloride (SnCb) together with two different bonding agents, methylenediphosphonic acid (MDP) and hydroxy-1, ethane-1, diphosphonic acid (HEDP) to see how they affected Tc-HA bonding to UMR- HA. Combined with the reducing agent and bonding agents, this study examined four other variables (length of time the solution was bubbled with nitrogen, length of time the Tc is in contact with the HA, amount of HA added to the solution, and solution temperature). The results suggest that the amount of Tc removed from solution by the UMR-HA was related to the amount of HA used and how long the Tc was in contact with the HA. The greatest amount of Tc removed from solution (87.8%) occurred with MDP present and without SnCl2"--Abstract, page iii.


Day, D. E.

Committee Member(s)

Kim, Cheol-Woon, 1966-
Brow, Richard K.
Brown, Roger F.


Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science

Degree Name

M.S. in Nuclear Engineering


United States. Department of Energy


Funding for this project came from the Innovations in Nuclear Infrastructure and Education Grant of the US Department of Energy (DE-FG07-09-ID14531).


University of Missouri--Rolla

Publication Date

Spring 2007


ix, 41 pages

Note about bibliography

Includes bibliographical references (pages 37-40).


© 2007 Michelle Elaine Minard, All rights reserved.

Document Type

Thesis - Restricted Access

File Type




Subject Headings

Hydroxyapatite -- Research
Radioactive substances -- England -- Sellafield
Radioactive substances -- Savannah River Watershed (Ga. and S.C.)
Radioactive substances -- Washington (State) -- Benton County
Radioactive waste disposal in rivers, lakes, etc. -- Research
Technetium -- Isotopes

Thesis Number

T 9092

Print OCLC #


Link to Catalog Record

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