High viscosity friction reducers (HVFRs) have been gaining more attention and increasing in use as proppant carriers. Reusing of produced water has also been driven by both environmental and economic benefits. However, high total dissolved solids (TDS) of produced water and high reservoir temperature significantly decrease the viscoelastic properties of HVFRs even for the cationic ones, which further reduce their proppant transport capabilities. Increasing loadings of HVFRs also has very limited effects on improving their proppant transport performances under high-TDS and high-Temperature conditions. The ultimate objective of this experimental study is to investigate the injection rate effects on the proppant transport performance of HVFRs, especially under high-TDS conditions. 1 gallon per thousand gallons (GPT) slickwater and 4 GPT HVFRs were comparatively analyzed by conducting rheology measurements and dynamic proppant transport experiments with both deionized (DI) water and 30, 000 mg/L TDS Marcellus formation water at 60°C. The 1 GPT slickwater was injected at a rate of 1.5 gal/min, whereas the 4 GPT HVFR was injected at a lower rate of 0.75 gal/min. The results showed that HVFRs with low injection rates were preferred when using fresh water. In contrast, slickwater with high pumping rates was preferred during produced water fracturing.


Geosciences and Geological and Petroleum Engineering

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Article - Conference proceedings

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Publication Date

01 Jan 2023