This study focuses on a tight carbonate reservoir which is located in Northern Kuwait and is classified as an unconventional reservoir. A practical imaging technique of wettability contact angle (θ°) presents "big data" as well as relative-permeability (Krw and Kro) measurements. Also, modeling, through rock image technology, the vast well-documented grain/pore boundary morphology available inside fresh rock fragments have achieved good results. Conventional laboratory relative-permeability experiments are expensive and time-consuming. This study introduces a novel method to measure/calculate relative permeability through fast, less expensive, non-destructive, and environmentally friendly techniques of imaging technology. One tight carbonate reservoir is selected, imaged, processed, analyzed, and then modeled using several pore diameter morphological models. The images are captured using a backscattered electron microscopy BSE-SEM technology analyses. In this study, two-dimensional images are used to characterize the morphology of selected samples grains and pores, using a two-step technique. In the first step, the image is captured using a backscattered electron detector (BSE), digital electron microscopy imaging, and pore-counting processing technology. All of the sample grain/pore features captured in the image are reported in micrometer units. In the second step, the pore area of such features is scanned using image analysis software that can accurately measure several morphological parameters of pore and grain spaces. A robust technique of visual estimate is used, which has the advantage of speeding the image analysis process. The visual analysis software tool counts different pores and counts grains and also measures their shapes and sizes which are crucial for relative permeability calculations. Several pore morphological models have been considered for optimum accuracy comparisons, including pore/grain relationships (area/perimeter), pore contact angle (θ), and pore count. Relative permeability is calculated based on the area of the pore/grain features measured from two-dimensional images. The study objectives are to accurately measure the wettability contact angle of huge pore geometries using 2D image technology to understand the nature of the pore network in the candidate reservoir. To study the relative permeability of internal influences of pore and grain morphology needed for enhanced oil recovery/improved oil recovery (EOR/IOR) future programs. And, finally, to measure relative permeability faster and more accurately.
S. Al-Sayegh et al., "Practical Imaging Applications Of Wettability Contact Angles On Kuwaiti Tight Carbonate Reservoir With Different Rock Types," Society of Petroleum Engineers - Gas and Oil Technology Showcase and Conference, GOTS 2023, Society of Petroleum Engineers, Jan 2023.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.2118/214165-MS
Geosciences and Geological and Petroleum Engineering
International Standard Book Number (ISBN)
Article - Conference proceedings
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01 Jan 2023