Oil and Gas Extraction Frequently Produces Substantial Volumes of Produced Water, Leading to Several Mechanical and Environmental Issues. Several Methods Have Been Applied over Decades, Including Chemical Processes Such as In-Situ Crosslinked Polymer Gel and Preformed Particle Gel, Which Are the Most Effective Nowadays. This Study Developed a Green and Biodegradable PPG Made of PAM and Chitosan as a Blocking Agent for Water Shutoff, Which Will Contribute to Combating the Toxicity of Several Commercially Used PPGs. the Applicability of Chitosan to Act as a Crosslinker Has Been Confirmed by FTIR Spectroscopy and Observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Extensive Swelling Capacity Measurements and Rheological Experiments Were Performed to Examine the Optimal Formulation of PAM/Cs based on Several PAM and Chitosan Concentrations and the Effects of Typical Reservoir Conditions, Such as Salinity, Temperature, and PH. the Optimum Concentrations of PAM with 0.5 Wt% Chitosan Were between 5–9 Wt%, While the Optimum Chitosan Amount with 6.5 Wt% PAM Was in the 0.25–0.5 Wt% Range, as These Concentrations Can Produce PPGs with High Swellability and Sufficient Strength. the Swelling Capacity of PAM/Cs is Lower in High Saline Water (HSW) with a TDS of 67.2976 G/L Compared with Fresh Water, Which is Related to the Osmotic Pressure Gradient between the Swelling Medium and the PPG. the Swelling Capacity in Freshwater Was Up to 80.37 G/g, While It is 18.73 G/g in HSW. the Storage Moduli Were Higher in HSW Than Freshwater, with Ranges of 1695–5000 Pa and 2053–5989 Pa, Respectively. the Storage Modulus of PAM/Cs Samples Was Higher in a Neutral Medium (PH = 6), Where the Fluctuation Behavior in Different PH Conditions is Related to Electrostatic Repulsions and Hydrogen Bond Formation. the Increase in Swelling Capacity Caused by the Progressive Increment in Temperature is Associated with the Amide Group's Hydrolysis to Carboxylate Groups. the Sizes of the Swollen Particles Are Controllable Since They Are Designed to Be 0.63–1.62 Mm in DIW and 0.86–1.00 Mm in HSW. PAM/Cs Showed Promising Swelling and Rheological Characteristics While Demonstrating Long-Term Thermal and Hydrolytic Stability in High-Temperature and High-Salinity Conditions.


Geosciences and Geological and Petroleum Engineering

Publication Status

Open Access


Qatar Foundation, Grant NPRP13S-1231-190009

Keywords and Phrases

chitosan; environmentally safe; mechanical strength; preformed particle gel; swelling; thermal stability; water shut-off

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)


Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version

Final Version

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Creative Commons Licensing

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Publication Date

01 Apr 2023