Lithospheric structure beneath the Archean Tanzania craton and adjacent regions, including segments of the East African rift system (EARS) and the Proterozoic-early Paleozoic orogenic belts between the EARS and the craton, is imaged by a joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh wave dispersion measurements derived from ambient seismic noise for shorter periods and teleseismic data for longer periods. Our resulting crustal thickness, crustal VP= VS measurements and 3D shear-wave velocity model for the upper 120 km show a clear spatial correspondence with major surficial geological features. The new results suggest the presence of a mafic layer in the bottom of the crust of the entire Archean craton, which is previously only identified beneath the southern portion of the craton. High crustal VP= VS values measured in the Rungwe Volcanic Province and most areas of the Kenya and Tanganyika rift segments can be attributed to a combined result of basaltic sediments atop the crust, magmatic intrusion, and crustal partial melting. The Kivu Volcanic Province and parts of the Kenya rift segment are characterized by localized lower-than-normal crustal VP= VS values and shear velocities in the lower crust and uppermost mantle, which, given the presence of large volume of CO2 from surficial observations, can be best interpreted by CO2-filled fractures or conduits. Lower-than-normal shear velocities in the uppermost mantle are revealed beneath almost the entire study region with the lowest values found in all the three volcanic provinces. The lowvelocities are indicative of an underplated layer formed by mantle-derived magmatic materials trapped below the Moho. The relatively low velocities beneath the volcanic provinces might be caused by a higher degree of partial melting in the uppermost mantle.
T. Wang et al., "Lithospheric Structure Underneath the Archean Tanzania Craton and Adjacent Regions from a Joint Inversion of Receiver Functions and Rayleigh-Wave Phase Velocity Dispersion," Seismological Research Letters, vol. 93, no. 3, pp. 1753 - 1767, Seismological Society of America, May 2022.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.1785/0220210296
Geosciences and Geological and Petroleum Engineering
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01 May 2022