Parowan Valley, Utah (USA), is an agricultural region experiencing rapid subsidence due to extensive groundwater extraction from aquifers with a significant portion of fine-grained sediments. To analyze the subsidence spatio-temporally, time-series Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) of 155 Sentinel-1 C-band scenes were processed. These data showed approximately 30 cm of ground subsidence in Parowan Valley from 2014 to 2020. Because of the high temporal sampling rate of the Sentinel-1 satellite (12-day cycle), it is possible to determine the seasonal changes of ground deformation and relate this to groundwater extraction. To better understand the relationship between ground deformation and groundwater extraction in the Parowan Valley, temporal changes in hydraulic head data from US Geological Survey observation wells were monitored. Additionally, well logs were analyzed and used to construct a map that showed the percentage of fine-grained material in the subsurface. The investigation of hydraulic head and geology, together with InSAR-derived ground displacement data, indicates that the most subsidence occurs where there is a co-occurrence of high groundwater demand and a high percentage of fine-grained sediments, but recharge likely plays a role in mitigating subsidence in some areas. The subsidence developed in Parowan Valley shows a long-term trend as well as seasonal variation and appears to be influenced by both agricultural activity and annual precipitation.


Geosciences and Geological and Petroleum Engineering

Keywords and Phrases

Agriculture; Groundwater; InSAR; Subsidence; USA

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

1435-0157; 1431-2174

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version

Final Version

File Type





© 2023 Springer, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Jan 2023