The primary cement of oil and gas wells is prone to fail under downhole conditions. Thus, a remedial operation must be conducted to restore the wellbore integrity and provides zonal isolation. Many types of materials are currently used and/or have the potential to be employed in wellbore integrity applications, including, but not limited to, conventional Portland cement, microfine and ultrafine cement, thermoset materials, and thermoplastic materials. In this study, several types of materials were selected for evaluation: (1) conventional Portland cement, which is the most widely used in remedial operations in the petroleum industry, (2) polymer resin, which is one of the most recent technologies being applied successfully in the field, (3) polymer solutions, and (4) polymer gel, which is a semisolid material that has shown potential in conformance control applications. This work addresses injectivity and the parameters that affect the injectivity of these materials, which to the authors' best knowledge have not been addressed comprehensively in the literature. The results of this study demonstrate the effects of several factors on the injectivity of the sealants: void size, viscosity of the sealant, injection flow rate, and heterogeneity of the void. The results also promote the use of solids-free sealants, such as epoxy resin, in wellbore remedial operations because epoxy resin behaved like Newtonian fluid and can therefore be injected into very small voids with a minimum pressure requirement.


Geosciences and Geological and Petroleum Engineering

Keywords and Phrases

Epoxy; Injectivity; Polymer; Preformed Particle Gel; Rheology; Well Cement Failure

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)


Document Type

Article - Journal

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Final Version

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Publication Date

24 Jun 2021