Investigating the key factors that impact fluid rheology and proppant static settling velocity in high viscosity friction reducers (HVFRs) is a critical aspect for successful proppant transport in hydraulic fracture treatment. In this study, the rheological properties of HVFRs were tested at various temperature ranges (i.e., 25, 50, 75, and 100◦C) and different HVFR concentrations (i.e., 1, 2, 4, and 8 gpt). Three sizes of spherical particle diameters (i.e., 2, 4, and 6 mm) were selected to measure the static settling velocity. The fracture fluid was tested in two fracture models: an unconfined glass model and a confined rectangular model with two fracture widths (7 and 10 mm). The settling velocity in the confined and unconfined models was measured using an advanced video camera. HVFR results exhibited acceptable thermal stability even at higher temperatures, also the viscosity and elasticity increased considerably with increasing concentration. Increasing the temperature cut the friction reducer efficiency to suspend the spherical particles for a significant time, and that was observed clearly at temperatures that reached 75◦C. Spherical particles freely settled in the unconfined model due to the absence of the wall effect, and the settling velocity decreased significantly as the HVFR concentration increased. Additionally, the fracture angularity substantially slowed the proppant settling velocity due to both the wall effect and several types of friction. This research provides insights into the rheological parameters of a high viscosity friction reducer as a fracturing fluid and its efficiency in transporting particles in bounded and unbounded fracture networks.
G. Biheri and A. Imqam, "Settling of Spherical Particles in High Viscosity Friction Reducer Fracture Fluids," Energies, vol. 14, no. 9, MDPI, May 2021.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.3390/en14092462
Geosciences and Geological and Petroleum Engineering
Keywords and Phrases
Dynamic programming; Fracture fluid; High viscous fracture fluid
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Article - Journal
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01 May 2021