A Comprehensive Review of Hydrogel Performance under CO₂ Conditions for Conformance Control


Hydrogels with different compositions have been designed to improve CO2 sweep efficiency and to reduce excessive CO2 production by reducing reservoir heterogeneity. The hydrogels that have been applied in CO2 flooding can be classified into three major types: in-situ gel, foamed gel, and preformed particle gel. The polymerization of monomer gel happens in the reservoirs; however, the monomer gels were replaced by cost-effective polymer gels due to economic and environmental concerns. Conventional polymer gels include metallically crosslinked PAM gel, organically crosslinked PAM gel and biopolymer gel. The most commonly used polymer gel in the CO2 flooding fields is the HPAM/Cr(III) polymer gel. A variety of hydrogels were applied in the CO2 flooding fields; however, the field application results are mixed. In order to improve the hydrogel performance under the CO2 condition, some novel gels were developed in the laboratories. The primary purpose of this study is to review hydrogel performance under the CO2 condition and provide recommendations for future gel development for CO2 flooding.


Geosciences and Geological and Petroleum Engineering

Research Center/Lab(s)

Center for Research in Energy and Environment (CREE)

Keywords and Phrases

CO2 conformance control; Hydrogel performance; In-situ gel; Preformed polyacrylamide-based particle gel

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)


Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


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© 2020 Elsevier, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Feb 2020