Campano-Maastrichtian Paleoenvironment, Paleotectonics and Sediment Provenance of Western Anambra Basin, Nigeria: Multi-Proxy Evidences from the Mamu Formation


This article presents the results of a high-resolution evaluation of the sedimentological, mineralogical, palynofacies, and geochemical aspects of the Mamu Formation aimed at deciphering the sediment provenance, as well as the prevailing paleoenvironmental, paleoclimatic and paleotectonic conditions that occurred during the late Campanian-middle Maastrichtian age in the less studied western section of the Anambra Basin, Nigeria. Four measured sections exposed in Uzebba (composite), Auchi, Okpekpe, and Imiegba were investigated using sedimentological (outcrop studies and laser diffraction particle size analysis), mineralogical (XRD), geochemical (ICP-MS and XRF)and palynofacies techniques. Seven lithofacies were identified and grouped into central basin, marsh, bay, barrier, beach, and washover fan facies association as well as meandering fluvial-tidal channel facies association interpreted as indicative of a tidally influenced wave dominated estuarine paleoenvironment. In addition, mineralogical and palynofacies characterization revealed the heterogeneous nature of the dark mudstone lithofacies, varying from a more proximal low salinity phytoclast and quartz dominated marsh and bay mudstones to a more distal higher salinity palynomorph and clay dominated central basin accumulating deep-water mudstones. Consistent with recent Campano-Maastrichtian paleogeographic and paleoclimatic models we observed a dominance of kaolinite, a high chemical index of alteration above 90%, and a predominantly low index of compositional variability values (<1%), which signifies mineralogical maturity of the sediments due to sediment recycling and intensive chemical weathering under humid tropical paleoclimate. Furthermore, trace and major element discriminant plots revealed a felsic-intermediate provenance for the sediments under passive margin paleotectonic regime, which is in agreement with the regional distribution, geology, and geochemistry of the pre-Santonian rocks and the Precambrian basement rocks in the area.


Geosciences and Geological and Petroleum Engineering

Research Center/Lab(s)

Center for Research in Energy and Environment (CREE)

Keywords and Phrases

Benin flank; Chemical index of alteration; Chemofacies; Cretaceous; Passive margin; Provenance

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Document Type

Article - Journal

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© 2019 Elsevier Ltd, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Aug 2019