A New Protophyllocladoxylon Wood from the Induan (Lower Triassic) Jiucaiyuan Formation in the Turpan—Hami Basin, Southern Bogda Mountains, Northwestern China


A silicified gymnospermous wood, Protophyllocladoxylon zhaobishanensis sp. nov., is described from the Induan (Lower Triassic) Jiucaiyuan Formation in Zhaobishan section, Shanshan County, southern Bogda Mountains, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, northwestern China. The pycnoxylic wood contains thick-walled tracheids and parenchymatous ray cells. It is characterized by uni- to triseriate araucarian radial tracheidal pitting, uniseriate rays, one to two large, simple pits in each cross-field, and uni- to biseriate tangential tracheidal pits. The presence of distinct and extensive growth rings in all fossil woods from the Induan of the research area were probably caused by the seasonal climate with great precipitation variability during the earliest Triassic in the Turpan—Hami Basin. This is also supported by the occurrence of Calcisols, vertic Calcisols, and calcic Argillisols from coeval deposits nearby. The occurrence of fossil wood with anatomical structures from the Induan confirms that woody gymnosperms, probably conifers, were crucial elements on the Early Triassic landscape in northeastern Pangaea. It appears that some gymnosperms had survived the end-Permian biotic crisis based on the continuous records of Protophyllocladoxylon-type woods from the Wuchiapingian (upper Permian) to Norian (Upper Triassic) in Bogda Mountains.


Geosciences and Geological and Petroleum Engineering

Research Center/Lab(s)

Center for Research in Energy and Environment (CREE)


This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41872013 and 41530101), the Strategic Priority Research Program (B) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDB26000000 , XDB18000000), the National Science Foundation (NSF EAR 1714749), and State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy (20181102).

Keywords and Phrases

Anatomy; Fossil wood; Gymnosperm; Induan; Xinjiang; Zhaobishan

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Article - Journal

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© 2019 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Aug 2019