Development and Implementation of Optimized Energy-Delay Sub-Network Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

Maciej Jan Zawodniok, Missouri University of Science and Technology
Jagannathan Sarangapani, Missouri University of Science and Technology
Steve Eugene Watkins, Missouri University of Science and Technology
James W. Fonda, Missouri University of Science and Technology

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The development and implementation of the optimized energy-delay sub-network routing (OEDSR) protocol for wireless sensor networks (WSN) is presented. This ondemand routing protocol minimizes a novel link cost factor which is defined using available energy, end-to-end (E2E) delay and distance from a node to the base station (BS), along with clustering, to effectively route information to the BS. Initially, the nodes are either in idle or sleep mode, but once an event is detected, the nodes near the event become active and start forming sub-networks. Formation of the inactive network into a sub-network saves energy because only a portion of the network is active in response to an event. Subsequently, the sub-networks organize themselves into clusters and elect cluster heads (CHs). The data from the CHs are sent to the BS via relay nodes (RNs) that are located outside the sub-networks in a multi-hop manner. This routing protocol improves the lifetime of the network and the scalability. This routing protocol is implemented over the medium access control (MAC) layer using UMR nodes. Experimental results illustrate that the protocol performs satisfactorily as expected.