The progression of distributed generation within a bulk power system will lead to the need for greater control of transmission-line power flows. Static synchronous compensators (STATCOMs) provide a power-electronics-based means of embedded control of transmission-line voltage and power flows. The integration of energy storage with a STATCOM can extend traditional STATCOM capabilities to four-quadrant power flow control and transient stability improvement. This paper discusses energy storage systems (ESSs) integrated with conventional and multilevel bidirectional power converters for a hybrid STATCOM/ESS. Conventional, diode-clamped, and cascaded multilevel converter-based STATCOM/ESSs are developed, and their performances for a variety of power system applications are compared using battery energy storage. The advantages and disadvantages of each topology are presented. Both simulation and experimental results are provided to validate the conclusions.


Electrical and Computer Engineering


United States. Department of Energy


Supported by the DOE Energy Storage Program through Sandia National Laboratories under Contract BD-0071-D

Keywords and Phrases

Battery Energy Storage (BESS); STATCOM; Cascaded Multilevel Converter; Diode-Clamped Converter; Distributed Generation; Embedded Control; Energy Storage; Load Flow Control; Multilevel Converters; Power Convertors; Power Electronics; Power System Transient Stability; Power Transmission Control; Static VAr Compensators; Static Synchronous Compensator; Static Synchronous Compensators (STATCOMs); Transient Stability; Transmission-Line Power Flow Control; Voltage Control

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)


Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version

Final Version

File Type





© 2006 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Jan 2006