This study reports for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, a real-time detection of ultralow-concentration chemical gases using fiber-optic technology, combining a miniaturized Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) with metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The sensor consists of a short and thick-walled silica capillary segment spliced to a lead-in single-mode fiber (SMF), housing a tiny single crystal of HKUST-1 MOF, imparting chemo selectivity features. Ethanol and benzene gases were tested, resulting in a shift in the FPI interference signal. The sensor demonstrated high sensitivity, detecting ethanol gas concentrations (EGCs) with a sensitivity of 0.428 nm/ppm between 24.9 and 40.11 ppm and benzene gas concentrations (BGCs) with a sensitivity of 0.15 nm/ppm between 99 and 124 ppm. The selectivity study involved a combination of three ultralow concentrations of ethanol, benzene, and toluene gases, revealing an enhancement factor of 436% for benzene and 140% for toluene, attributed to the improved miscibility of these conjugated ring molecules with the alkane chains of the ethanol-modified HKUST-1. Experimental tests confirmed the sensor's viability, demonstrating significantly improved response time and spectral characteristics through crystal polishing, indicating its potential for quantifying and detecting chemical gases at ultralow concentrations. This technology may prevent energy resource losses, and the sensor's small size and robust construction make it applicable in confined and hazardous locations.


Electrical and Computer Engineering


Army Research Laboratory, Grant W911NF-21–2–0280

Keywords and Phrases

ethanol and benzene detection; Fabry−Perot interferometry; fiber optics; industrial safety; low concentration gas sensing; metal−organic frameworks (MOFs); real-time monitoring

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

1944-8252; 1944-8244

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


File Type





© 2024 American Chemical Society, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

13 Mar 2024

PubMed ID