It is common that spherical scatterers are used to represent air bubbles or brine inclusions embedded in the snow or sea ice layer. This physical configuration is then solved using radiative transfer theory to obtain backscattering coefficient from the snow or sea ice layer. With the advent of new techniques in computational electromagnetics, the typical theoretical model of single layer of snow or sea ice can be easily extended to consider types of scatterers which are of other shapes or irregular shapes. A computational electromagnetic method based on equivalence principle algorithm can be incorporated into existing theoretical model to calculate the backscattering coefficient of layers using radiative transfer theory. Averaging over different orientation angles of the scatterers in the medium is also needed in the calculation of phase matric and extinction matrix of scatterers when the scatterers are no longer limited in spherical shape. Theoretical analysis of the developed model is presented for this extension work.


Electrical and Computer Engineering

Keywords and Phrases

electromagnetic modeling; Equivalence principle algorithm; radar applications; radar remote sensing; snow and sea ice

International Standard Book Number (ISBN)


Document Type

Article - Conference proceedings

Document Version


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Publication Date

26 Apr 2016