This research reports a distributed fiber optic high-temperature sensing system tailored for applications in the steel industry and various other sectors. Recent advancements in optical sensor technology have led to the exploration of sapphire crystal fibers as a solution for sensing in harsh environments. Utilizing a femtosecond (fs) laser, cascaded fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) were meticulously fabricated within a multimode sapphire optical fiber. These FBGs endowed the system with distributed sensing capabilities and underwent rigorous testing under extreme temperatures, reaching up to 1,800 °C. The study delves into the investigation of the FBG reflection spectrum, facilitated by the development of a sophisticated multimode demodulation system, which contributed to the attainment of precise temperature measurements with a performance accuracy of 99.9%. Demonstrating exceptional thermal stability, the sapphire FBGs endured temperatures of 1,600 °C for a sustained duration of 22 hours. Furthermore, the paper explores the application of distributed temperature sensing employing multiple sapphire FBGs, showcasing their utility in temperature measurements related to molten steel studies.
D. R. Alla et al., "Cascaded Sapphire Fiber Bragg Gratings Inscribed By Femtosecond Laser For Molten Steel Studies," IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Jan 2023.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.1109/TIM.2023.3335530
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Materials Science and Engineering
Keywords and Phrases
femtosecond (fs) laser; Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs); Fiber gratings; fiber sensors; molten steel; Optical fiber networks; Optical fiber sensors; sapphire optical fiber; Sensors; Steel; submerged entry nozzle (SEN); Temperature measurement; Temperature sensors
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Article - Journal
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01 Jan 2023