Distributed detection over a blockchain-aided Internet of Things (BIoT) network in the presence of attacks is considered, where the integrated blockchain is employed to secure data exchanges over the BIoT as well as data storage at the agents of the BIoT. We consider a general adversary model where attackers jointly exploit the vulnerability of IoT devices and that of the blockchain employed in the BIoT. The optimal attacking strategy which minimizes the Kullback-Leibler divergence is pursued. It can be shown that this optimization problem is nonconvex, and hence it is generally intractable to find the globally optimal solution to such a problem. To overcome this issue, we first propose a relaxation method that can convert the original nonconvex optimization problem into a convex optimization problem, and then the analytic expression for the optimal solution to the relaxed convex optimization problem is derived. The optimal value of the relaxed convex optimization problem provides a detection performance guarantee for the BIoT in the presence of attacks. In addition, we develop a coordinate descent algorithm which is based on a capped water-filling method to solve the relaxed convex optimization problem, and moreover, we show that the convergence of the proposed coordinate descent algorithm can be guaranteed.


Electrical and Computer Engineering

Keywords and Phrases

Blockchain; capped water-filling; distributed detection; double-spending attack; Internet of Things; Kullback-Leibler divergence

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

1556-6021; 1556-6013

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


File Type





© 2023 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Jan 2023