Radio frequency interference can degrade the receiving sensitivity of antennas. The interference is usually caused by certain coupling structures, such as layouts without adequate grounding for the radio frequency signal return path. Those structures can be modeled as a set of equivalent dipole moments when they are electrically small. Herein, the dipole moment model-based coupling framework is applied to a practical cellphone design case to devise an engineering solution. The coupling framework incorporates dipole moments as radiation sources and a coupling model based on the reciprocity theorem. Unfortunately, near-field scan probes often lack access to all locations, owing to the complex phone platform structure. A combined measurement-simulation method is used to obtain the field quantities lacking direct access to measurements. The dipole-moment-based coupling framework helps estimate the couplings from different noise sources individually. Thus, the priority of solving for better layout designs can be determined according to the coupling estimations. Furthermore, the physics associated with the reconstructed dipole moment can provide insights and suggest possible mitigation methods. Several practical mitigation methods are discussed, including the suppression of the dominant noise source (reducing/cancelling the radiation or suppressing the specific noise spectrum) and the coupling path to the victim antenna.


Electrical and Computer Engineering

Keywords and Phrases

Antenna measurements; Clocks; Couplings; Dipole antennas; Dipole moment; Harmonic analysis; Magnetic moments; near field scan; Radio frequency; radio-frequency (RF) interference; reciprocity; RF desensitization

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

1558-187X; 0018-9375

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


File Type





© 2023 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Jan 2023