To achieve a cost-effective and expeditious charging experience for extreme fast charging station (XFCS) owners and electric vehicle (EV) users, the optimal operation of XFCS is crucial. It is however challenging to simultaneously manage the profit from energy arbitrage, the cost of demand charges, and the degradation of a battery energy storage system (BESS) under uncertainties. This paper, therefore, proposes a multi-layered multi-time scale energy flow management framework for an XFCS by considering long- and short-term forecast uncertainties, monthly demand charges reduction, and BESS life degradation. In the proposed approach, an upper scheduling layer (USL) ensures the overall operation economy and yields optimal scheduling of the energy resources on a rolling horizon basis, thereby considering the long-term forecast errors. A lower dispatch layer (LDL) takes the short-term forecast errors into account during the real-time operation of the XFCS. Per the latest research, monthly demand charges can be as high as 90% of the total monthly bills for EV fast charging stations; to this end, this paper takes the first attempt at the reduction of demand charges cost by considering the trade-off between the energy cost and monthly demand charges. Contrasting literature, this work allocates an energy reserve in the BESS stored energy to deal with the impact of short-term forecast errors on the optimized real-time operation of the XFCS. Moreover, degradation modeling considers the trade-off between short-term benefits and long-term BESS life degradation. Lastly, case studies and a comparative analysis prove the efficacy of the proposed framework.


Electrical and Computer Engineering

Publication Status

Early Access

Keywords and Phrases

Batteries; battery degradation; Charging stations; Costs; Degradation; demand charges; Energy management; energy management; extreme fast charging; forecast uncertainties; Real-time systems; Transportation

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)


Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


File Type





© 2023 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Jan 2023