Active Microwave Thermography to Detect and Locate Water Ingress


This article reports on the application of a new and efficient nondestructive testing and evaluation (NDT&E) technique referred to as active microwave thermography (AMT) used to detect and locate water ingress within a structure. First, a mathematical formulation and analysis is established that relates the water extension and location to the temperature distribution over the inspection surface and enables evaluation of water from the measured temperature data. Following the analysis, the AMT measurement results of a small volume of water, placed in a rubber sample at a predetermined location, are reported. The results verify the analysis and demonstrate the potential of AMT for water detection. In addition, analysis of the measurement data indicates the potential of AMT for not only detection of water ingress but also accurate depth estimation of small amounts of water ingress.


Electrical and Computer Engineering

Keywords and Phrases

Active Microwave Thermography (AMT); Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation (NDT&; E); Rubber; Water Ingress

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

0018-9456; 1557-9662

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


File Type





© 2020 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), All rights reserved.

Publication Date

18 Jun 2020