Training Recurrent Neural Networks with the Levenberg-Marquardt Algorithm for Optimal Control of a Grid-Connected Converter


This paper investigates how to train a recurrent neural network (RNN) using the Levenberg Marquardt (LM) algorithm as well as how to implement optimal control of a gridconnected converter (GCC) using an RNN. To successfully and efficiently train an RNN using the LM algorithm, a new forward accumulation through time (FATT) algorithm is proposed to calculate the Jacobian matrix required by the LM algorithm. This paper explores how to incorporate FATT into the LM algorithm. The results show that the combination of the LM and FATT algorithms trains RNNs better than the conventional backpropagation through time algorithm. This paper presents an analytical study on the optimal control of GCCs, including theoretically ideal optimal and suboptimal controllers. To overcome the inapplicability of the optimal GCC controller under practical conditions, a new RNN controller with an improved input structure is proposed to approximate the ideal optimal controller. The performance of an ideal optimal controller and a well-trained RNN controller was compared in close to reallife power converter switching environments, demonstrating that the proposed RNN controller can achieve close to ideal optimal control performance even under low sampling rate conditions. The excellent performance of the proposed RNN controller under challenging and distorted system conditions further indicates the feasibility of using an RNN to approximate optimal control in practical applications.


Electrical and Computer Engineering

Research Center/Lab(s)

Center for High Performance Computing Research

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)


Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


File Type





© 2015 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Jan 2015