The statistical properties of Clarke's fading model with a finite number of sinusoids are analyzed, and an improved reference model is proposed for the simulation of Rayleigh fading channels. A novel statistical simulation model for Rician fading channels is examined. The new Rician fading simulation model employs a zero-mean stochastic sinusoid as the specular (line-of-sight) component, in contrast to existing Rician fading simulators that utilize a non-zero deterministic specular component. The statistical properties of the proposed Rician fading simulation model are analyzed in detail. It is shown that the probability density function of the Rician fading phase is not only independent of time but also uniformly distributed over [-pi, pi). This property is different from that of existing Rician fading simulators. The statistical properties of the new simulators are confirmed by extensive simulation results, showing good agreement with theoretical analysis in all cases. An explicit formula for the level-crossing rate is derived for general Rician fading when the specular component has non-zero Doppler frequency


Electrical and Computer Engineering

Keywords and Phrases

Rayleigh Channels; Rayleigh Fading Channels; Rician Channels; Rician Fading Channels; Level-Crossing Rate; Non-Zero Deterministic Specular Component; Nonzero Doppler Frequency; Probability Density Function; Statistical Analysis; Statistical Properties; Stochastic Processes; Sum-Of-Sinusoids Simulation Models; Zero-Mean Stochastic Sinusoid

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)


Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version

Final Version

File Type





© 2006 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Jan 2006