Doctoral Dissertations


"The disintegration and failure of fire clay refractories due to the action of carbon monoxide has been studied tor a period at about fifty years. The most important application is in blast furnace refractories. Similar failures due to carbon deposition, involving other gases such as methane, have been noted and less extensively studied. Failures due to the action of gases other than carbon monoxide are beyond the scope of this thesis. Occasional attempts to find some agent to prevent disintegration have been mentioned in the literature. In this study the number of such substances and the results of their action is increased and extended.

It was the purpose of this study to investigate the action at carbon monoxide gas upon two naturally appearing kaolins to which both uniform and non uniform additions of chemically pure iron oxide were made; to find some agent which could be added either to the kaolins, to commercial type refractory mixes, or used as a treatment for fired refractories which would prevent decomposition. A third purpose was to study the mechanism by which breakdown of the refractory and deposition of carbon occurred. The work was limited to laboratory investigations of the reaction between iron and its compounds and carbon monoxide gas. The effects of zinc and other chemical elements on destructive carbon deposition, mainly in the iron blast furnace, although apparently connected with refractory destruction by carbon deposit, was not a primary object of the work. Although carbon monoxide is prevalent in most of the gases used in industrial heat treating, and refractories in such furnaces sometimes fail by carbon deposition, the main emphasis was upon refractory attack by this gas during the production of pig iron from the ore.

During the investigation, it was found that graphite was one of the products of destructive carbon deposition, and a quantitative procedure was developed for the estimation of graphite in the carbon present in disintegrated specimens. Although they are frequently used, no tests were made by passing carbon monoxide over pure substances at elevated temperatures. Such tests are often made in order to lessen the number of factors involved. All tests in this study were made on fired ceramic material to which an addition of iron oxide had been made. Results thus obtained should be closer to those actually taking place in the refractory during service "--Introduction, pages 1-2.


Herold, P. G.


Materials Science and Engineering

Degree Name

Ph. D. in Ceramic Engineering


Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy

Publication Date



vi, 326 pages

Note about bibliography

Includes bibliographical references (pages 316-325).


© 1954 William Alfred Frad, All rights reserved.

Document Type

Dissertation - Open Access

File Type




Subject Headings

Fire-clay -- Analysis
Refractory materials -- Analysis
Carbon monoxide

Thesis Number

T 1086

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