Doctoral Dissertations

Keywords and Phrases

Cationic and anionic; high-tds and high-temperature; hvfrs; proppant transport; rheology


"High viscosity friction reducers (HVFRs) have been recently gaining more attention and increasing in use, not only as friction-reducing agents but also as proppant carriers. Reusing of produced water has also been driven by both environmental and economic benefits. Currently, most friction reducers on the market are anionic friction reducers, which are fully compatible with most produced water with low to medium level of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) but show a significant drop at high TDS conditions in term of their friction reduction performance in most cases. On the contrary, cationic friction reducers are believed to have better TDS tolerance and friction reduction performance under high TDS conditions.

However, concerns persist regarding the performance of using anionic and cationic HVFRs in conjunction with produced water for proppant transport. The primary goal of this research study is to conduct a comparative analysis of the proppant transport capabilities of anionic and cationic HVFRs within high TDS and reservoir temperature environments. Specifically, this research work will investigate the effects of TDS levels, fluid concentration, temperature, and injection rate. Moreover, it will explore the mechanisms behind ions’ effects on the viscosity and viscoelasticity of HVFRs.

Studying these factors will provide valuable insights for engineers, enhancing their comprehension of HVFR behavior in diverse environmental conditions. This comprehensive research aims to optimize the utilization of HVFRs as alternatives to traditional fracturing fluids, such as slickwater"-- Abstract, p. iv


Bai, Baojun
Imqam, Abdulmohsin

Committee Member(s)

Dunn-Norman, Shari
Sherizadeh, Taghi
Elsharafi, Mahmoud Omran


Geosciences and Geological and Petroleum Engineering

Degree Name

Ph. D. in Petroleum Engineering


Missouri University of Science and Technology

Publication Date

Spring 2024


xvi, 161 pages

Note about bibliography

Includes_bibliographical_references_(pages 50, 78, 97, 149 and 158-160)


© 2023 Xiaojing Ge, All rights reserved

Document Type

Dissertation - Open Access

File Type




Thesis Number

T 12334

Electronic OCLC #